Phonological Awareness is the overarching awareness of sound structures in speech. Children, particularly children with reading difficulties, require specific opportunities to experiment with manipulating sounds in words because reading is contingent upon phonological awareness.
Components of phonological awareness include the ability to segment individual words within a sentence, recognize and produce a rhyme, blend syllables into words and break words into syllables.
Examples of Segmenting Words within a Sentence
Present the student with a row of colored cubes. I am going to say a sentence. “John was a happy boy.” I want you to repeat the sentence and push up a cube as you say each word from the sentence. Student should slide five cubes up (/John/ /was/ /a/ /happy/ boy/). This can be an especially helpful procedure for students new to the English language. (VIDEO)
Examples of Rhyme Production
Say: What rhymes with “fin”? Student responds with an appropriate rhyming word. If the student is unable to produce a rhyme, the teacher may provide an example. “Tin rhymes with fin”. Try up to five different words to ensure the student understands the task. If the student is still unable to produce a rhyme, move on to “Rhyme Recognition”.
Examples of Rhyme Recognition
Say: Do “tag” and “bag” rhyme? Student responds.
Be sure to include some non-rhyming examples.
Say: Do “clock” and “rug” rhyme?
An alternate example of Rhyme Recognition is as follows:
Have you ever seen a bear combing his hair?—Which two words rhyme?
Examples of Blending Words into Syllables
I am going to say parts of a word. When I say those parts, I want you to put those parts together and say the whole word: “win…dow” (pause between syllables). What word am I saying? (window)
I am going to say parts of a word. When I say those parts, I want you to put those parts together and say the whole word: “ham…bur…ger” (pause between syllables). What word am I saying? (hamburger)
Examples of Breaking Words into Syllables
I am going to say a word and I want you to say each part of the word. You can clap as you say each part: baseball (2 parts- base…ball); electric (3 parts-e…lec…tric); alligator (4 parts-al…lig…a…tor)